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Aging hallmarks and potential aging interventions. (A) Aging hallmarks. Genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication constitute nine hallmarks of the human aging process. The panel was modified from López-Otín C et al. . (B) Potential approaches for intervening aging. Pharmacological administration, gene therapy, regenerative medicine and immunogenic intervention are four main potentially practicable strategies for aging intervention. The corresponding cellular effects include clearance of senescent cells, mitohormetics and mitophagy, IIS and mTOR inhibition, AMPK and sirtuin activation, activation of chaperones and proteases, telomerase reactivation, epigenetic remodeling, elimination of oncogenic cells, anti-inflammation and metabolic remodeling, and stem cell rejuvenation. The connecting arrows indicate the previously reported correlations between the interventions and the cellular effects. The color of the individual effect is consistent with that of the respective aging hallmark.
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