Open Access

Figure 1


Download original image

Aging hallmarks and potential aging interventions. (A) Aging hallmarks. Genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication constitute nine hallmarks of the human aging process. The panel was modified from López-Otín C et al. [1]. (B) Potential approaches for intervening aging. Pharmacological administration, gene therapy, regenerative medicine and immunogenic intervention are four main potentially practicable strategies for aging intervention. The corresponding cellular effects include clearance of senescent cells, mitohormetics and mitophagy, IIS and mTOR inhibition, AMPK and sirtuin activation, activation of chaperones and proteases, telomerase reactivation, epigenetic remodeling, elimination of oncogenic cells, anti-inflammation and metabolic remodeling, and stem cell rejuvenation. The connecting arrows indicate the previously reported correlations between the interventions and the cellular effects. The color of the individual effect is consistent with that of the respective aging hallmark.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.