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Figure 4


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Biodiversity loss and different indicators in more general scenarios. (200 independent simulation runs) (A) Fitness of the linear model relating the secondary extinction size and different indicators , degree, (weighted degree), (betweenness centrality) with increasing removal range of species of all the 29 networks. As shown in (B), the result of PL (plant-pollinator) networks has high indirect effect and increasing removal range. (C) and (D) are the relationship between secondary extinction sizes and . (C) Capacity of indicating secondary extinction size with increases with PC1 of PCA and decreases with removal range . (D) in eq. (6) is more suitable for networks with higher indirect effect (and small removed range). Different markers correspond to four different types of ecosystems, where colorbars show the percentage of removed species.

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